This disorder, also called adrenogenital syndrome AGS , results from a genetically caused deficiency of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Clearly, there are many other potential legal implications of such definitions and the complicated issues they raise are many. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one half of each pair inherited from each parent. Other disorders SRY gene mutations that impair but do not eliminate the function of the sex-determining region Y protein have been identified in a small number of people with 46,XY disorder of sex development, or partial gonadal dysgenesis. Legal Definitions of Gender An example of the implications of legal definitions of sexual affiliation In addition to social implications, sex and gender categorization has important political and legal implications as well. All of the women who participated in the study were satisfied at having been raised as females, and none of the participants desired gender reassignment. Swyer syndrome Mutations in the SRY gene have been identified in approximately 15 percent of individuals with Swyer syndrome, also known as 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis or 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis. A fetus whose cells do not produce functional sex-determining region Y protein will not develop testes but will develop a uterus and fallopian tubes, despite having a typically male karyotype. There is no severe phenotype associated with three X chromosomes in women. The court invalidated the marriage on the grounds that the transsexual woman was legally a man. Affected individuals are usually taller than average and have slender builds. Clitoral surgery for intersex conditions was promoted by Hugh Hampton Young in the United States in the late s. The disorder occurs with a frequency of 1: Qualitative variation in chromosome complement, genital morphology and hormonal activity falls under the area of overlap. The Y chromosome is small, carries few genes, and has abundant repetitive sequence, while the X chromosome is more autosome-like in form and content. About 10 percent of individuals who have both testicular and ovarian tissue, a condition called ovotesticular disorder of sex development, have two X chromosomes with one carrying a misplaced copy of the SRY gene.