Yet this means that it is often children themselves who experience these harsher penalties, because their crimes almost always involve other kids. The preference is for treatment, not registration, and most high-risk youth are placed in treatment programs with registration decisions deferred until they are released, at which point they may no longer be deemed high-risk. With thousands of new registrants added each year, law enforcement is stymied in their attempt to focus on the most dangerous offenders. Adolescent thinking is present-oriented and tends to ignore, discount, or not fully understand future outcomes and implications. The DOJ study did not examine how many of these incidents involved an adult or youth offender. Residency restriction laws impose another layer of control, subjecting people convicted of sexual offenses as children to a range of rules about where they may live. According to ATSA , only in the states that utilize empirically derived risk assessment procedures and publicly identify only high risk offenders, has community notification demonstrated some effectiveness. Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal conviction. Long-Term Impact on Youth Sex Offenders and Their Families When first adopted, registration laws neither required nor prohibited inclusion of youth sex offenders. Children Are Different [C]hildren are constitutionally different from adults. The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live. According to a US Department of Justice DOJ study, an estimated , rapes and sexual assaults occurred in the United States in the most recent year for which data are available. Several of the states had no minimum age of juvenile jurisdiction and had put children as young as eight on their registries. It is unknown how many persons are subject to registration laws in the United States for crimes committed as children. Registrants must periodically update this information so that it remains current in each jurisdiction in which they reside, work, or attend school. It will also include individuals who have been granted name suppression.