One possible reason may have been a British Medical Journal article which stated that there was no medical reason for the general circumcision of babies. The Greeks abhorred circumcision, making life for circumcised Jews living among the Greeks and later the Romans very difficult. Yeasts, especially Candida albicans , are the most common penile infection and are rarely identified in samples taken from circumcised males. The orifice through which urine passes at the tip of the penis the urinary meatus hosts more urinary system disease-causing bacteria in uncircumcised boys than in circumcised boys, especially in those under six months of age. Bantu tribes were observed to be upholding what was described as Jewish law, including circumcision, in the 16th century. It probably started among South American tribes as a blood sacrifice or ritual mutilation to test bravery and endurance, and its use later evolved into a rite of initiation. The teaching that physical circumcision was unnecessary for membership in a divine covenant was instrumental in the separation of Christianity from Judaism. This was considered by the Jewish leaders to be a serious problem, and during the 2nd century CE they changed the requirements of Jewish circumcision to call for the complete removal of the foreskin,  emphasizing the Jewish view of circumcision as intended to be not just the fulfillment of a Biblical commandment but also an essential and permanent mark of membership in a people. Little information is available about the origins and history of circumcision among these peoples, compared to circumcision in the Middle East. A meta-analysis found a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with circumcision in black men. One theory is that it began in one geographic area and spread from there; another is that several different cultural groups began its practice independently. This can be inferred from study results that show uncircumcised men with no history of phimosis are equally likely to have penile cancer as circumcised men. Contemporary physicians picked up on Sayre's new treatment, which they believed could prevent or cure a wide-ranging array of medical problems and social ills. By the turn of the century, in both America and Great Britain, infant circumcision was near universally recommended. The decline in the rates in the UK is one example; another is that in the United States, the individual states where insurance or Medicaid covers the costs have higher rates. There is no firm consensus as to how it came to be practiced worldwide.