DOMA defined marriage as between on man and one woman for purposes of all federal benefits. In our study of media representation of same-sex marriage, there is a dearth of liberal viewpoints. In , the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that barring gays and lesbians from marrying violates the state constitution. In countries where consensus has yet to be reached on this issue, the debate is unlikely to be resolved quickly or easily. We argue that this separation of church and state around homosexuality was ripe in legal and political discourse, and that, particularly after the landmark Lawrence v. They often proscribed behaviours that other countries viewed as subject to moral, rather than legal, regulation. Early in the Supreme Courts of two states— California and Connecticut —struck down state laws limiting marriage to the union between a man and a woman. Whether Egyptian, Vijayanagaran, Roman, Ottoman, Mongol, Chinese, European, or other, empires have long fostered or, in some cases, imposed the widespread adoption of a relatively small number of religious and legal systems. He states that "the days of minimal effects by the media are over. I mean, it's done. This end of morals legislation in the courts is reflected in a significant decline in morals discourse in the media as well. This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark , where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships. This landmark civil rights case is cited as precedent for many same-sex marriage cases. Twenty-four of Republicans joined in introducing the amendment, indicating that the constitutional amendment was a priority for the Republican leadership in the Senate. Page goes on to analyze the effect that media bias may have on the public, which is particularly salient to our study.