But even if this cruel justice was applied, it is now mostly accepted that the victims were also passive homosexuals. Also, more than in other social circles, in the military the sexes can seem more than a little alien to each other, with incomprehension on both sides. The problem was alleviated only when many soldiers brought women with them. And what about the Germanic tribes? A good example of this is the investigation by Professor Sandra Whitworth into the initiation rites of Canadian paratroopers. Although from the 16th Century on there are more reports that mercenaries were burned for sodomy, there are also accounts that in emergency situations when every man was needed, the death penalty was waived. France and England, Feijoo, Ramiro: According to Edward Gibbon, Claudius was the only one of the first fifteen emperors who had no homosexual inclinations, and among Caesar's legionaries salacious jokes circulated, because in his relationship with Nicomedes of Bithynia he was believed to have been the passive one. Especially in the remote outposts and lonely desert forts, young recruits became easy prey for the "anciens". Although this role was normally assumed by youngsters who were not yet counted as "real men", it was still considered derogatory. Reprentations of Skalds in the Sagas 2: That changed with the 16th Century, when Catholics and Protestants competed for being the most zealous in burning heretics, witches, and of course homosexuals. Although this patently absurd project was quickly cancelled, it nevertheless demonstrates what behavior generals expect soldiers to be capable of, once the control barriers are lowered even slightly. And then in their perpetual wanderings through all sorts of countries, murders, and adventures, they contracted affections, one for the other, in which the stronger protected the younger in the midst of battles, helped him to cross precipices, sponged the sweat of fevers from his brow, and stole food for him, and the weaker, a child perhaps, who had been picked up on the roadside, and had then become a Mercenary, repaid this devotion by a thousand kindnesses. But even if these warrior societies were newly formed without much tradition, homosexuality often seems to be a defining moment, as recent studies of North African corsairs, or the pirates of the Caribbean Sea, show.